Tendonitis and Tenosynovitis

What are tendonitis and tenosynovitis?

Tendons are strong cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones.
Tendonitis is when a tendon is inflamed. It can happen to any tendon in the body.
When a tendon is inflamed, it can cause swelling, pain, and discomfort. 

Another problem called tenosynovitis is linked to tendonitis. This
is the inflammation of the lining of the tendon sheath around a tendon. Often the
sheath itself is inflamed, but both the sheath and the tendon can be inflamed at the
same time.

Common types of these tendon problems include:

  • Lateral epicondylitis.
    This is most often known as tennis elbow. It causes pain to the side of the
    elbow and forearm, along the thumb side of the arm. The pain is caused by damage
    to the tendons that bend the wrist back and away from the palm.
  • Medial epicondylitis. This
    is most often known as golfer’s or baseball elbow. It causes pain from the elbow
    to the wrist on the palm side of the forearm. The pain is caused by damage to
    the tendons that bend the wrist toward the palm.
  • Rotator cuff tendonitis.
    This is a shoulder disorder. It causes inflammation of the shoulder capsule and
    related tendons.
  • DeQuervain tenosynovitis.
    This is a common tenosynovitis disorder. It causes swelling in the tendon sheath
    of the tendons of the thumb.
  • Trigger finger or trigger
    thumb.
    This is a type of tenosynovitis. The tendon sheath becomes
    inflamed and thickened. This makes it hard to extend or flex the finger or
    thumb. The finger or thumb may lock or “trigger” suddenly.

What causes tendonitis and tenosynovitis?

The cause of tendonitis and tenosynovitis is often not known. They
may be caused by strain, overuse, injury, or too much exercise. They may also be
linked to a disease such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or infection.

What are the symptoms of tendonitis and tenosynovitis?

Symptoms may include:

  • Pain in the tendon when moved
  • Swelling from fluid and inflammation
  • A grating feeling when moving the joint

The symptoms of tendonitis can seem like other health problems.
Talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How are tendonitis and tenosynovitis diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask about your health history and
give you a physical exam. You may have tests to check for other problems that may be
causing your symptoms. The tests may include:

  • Joint aspiration. The
    healthcare provider uses a needle to take a small amount of fluid from the
    joint. The fluid is tested to check for gout or signs of an infection.
  • X-ray. A small amount of
    radiation is used to make an image. Tendons can’t be seen on an X-ray, but they
    can show bone. This test can check for arthritis, calcifications, and other
    problems.